Agriculture and Rural Development
The persistence of food crises in developing countries shows that their agricultural sectors need help to grow stronger and evolve. AFD encourages the use of modern farming techniques and the development of new infrastructure, institutions and systems – encouraging better-organized industries, improving coordination between industry participants, and securing land tenure.
Land is a vital resource in any society. However, access to land remains unequal in the South and undermines local communities. AFD is focusing on securing land tenure in Madagascar, with the aim of increasing producers’ incomes, securing their plots and reducing land-related conflicts.
Land tenure security: Key to agricultural development?
Land is a source of food, housing, income and identity. Access to land is therefore a vital issue in rural societies, especially in countries where there is an extremely high level of competition and pressure over land.
This is the case in countries where agriculture and livestock raising play a major role in the economy.
Land pressure is exacerbated by challenges such as population growth, climate change, the depletion of soil fertility, and the need for global food and energy security.
Land tenure security fosters the economic development of a country and thereby improves living conditions for its population. It does so by providing a set of measures and tools which allow land rights holders to enjoy these rights and be protected against any disputes. Owners can subsequently invest in their land.
Urban demand for food products unmet
As in many other sectors, the political crisis which ended in 2013 increased the level of poverty of people in Madagascar.
Two regions have been hit particularly hard: Analamanga and Itasy, where there is the largest number of poor households among the country’s 22 regions.
Rice-growing plot in the Itasy region
These are two particularly important regions, as they are highly agricultural and their proximity to the capital means that they are subject to urban demand for agricultural products. However, supply does not meet demand: the supply of food products falls short of urban demand.
This leads to inflationary pressure on retail prices.
Towards more equitable and sustainable land management
In addition to agricultural development projects or best practices to increase yields, land tenure security is an aspect which is not adequately addressed and on which AFD has been focusing efforts for over 10 years.
Back in 2004, AFD had already financed Madagascar’s first land tenure window in Amparafaravola, in the Alaotra Mangoro region.
Land tenure security is a recurrent problem which adversely affects agricultural development. The micro-fragmentation of peri-urban agricultural areas, difficulties and slowness of procedures to obtain titles, or lack of access to land certificates hold back investments and hamper agricultural intensification initiatives.
Air layering of lychees in Ambarikely, Itasy
It is for this reason that AFD, alongside the European Union, is supporting a project to assist the reform and land tenure security: the ARSF project.
This initiative is in line with AFD’s strategy for both agricultural development and environmental protection by promoting agroecological practices and reforestation.
This project was launched in 2016 and plans to establish mechanisms for land rights security, land management and property taxation in 75 rural municipalities.
Results already visible
Results were clearly apparent in December 2016:
- Some of the 4,000 land certificates and titles have been issued;
- 11 new municipal windows have been officially declared open;
- 22 mayors have been trained in order to ensure there is effective decentralized land management.
During the ceremony, some of the 2016 people received their land certificate
These encouraging figures should be followed by other economic, social, environmental and institutional results. A law on private property is also under preparation and AFD will continue to be fully mobilized on this issue.
Since 2001, AFD has been financing a unique program combining reforestation, soil protection and natural resources development in the Cordillera Central. Fifteen years on, the lives of the residents of the Sierra region have been changed.
In the mountainous regions of the center of the Dominican Republic, logging, slash-and-burn farming and intensive farming had a devastating impact in the 20th century: deforestation, eroded soils and depletion of water resources. Here, like elsewhere, there have been inevitable consequences: rural exodus and loss of economic activity in the territories. In a context of agrarian revolutions, governments took measures in the late 1960s. Land was informally invaded, but with no real support, a response was necessary.
Pine trees and coffee trees to recover land
Plan Sierra is a public-private partnership which came about in 1979 in the watershed region of the Yaque del Norte River in the Northwest of the country. It was launched by a group of emigrants in the USA and local leaders and has been supported by AFD since 2001. “Before”, explains Juan Rodríguez, a forester, “a lot of land had been cleared here because we, as residents who lived here, worked on the conucos (family slash-and-burn farming) and illegal logging”. “Mentalities have changed”, adds Victor Tolentino, one of his neighbors who is mainly a herder. “With support from Plan Sierra, we started by sowing pine trees. But, like me, the vast majority of herders now also plant trees. In addition to being beneficial to the environment, it is also a commercial activity… Thanks to this, we have brought comfort to our animals and life to our countryside!”.
Pine trees, coffee trees, fruit trees… It involved covering soils in order to recover the territory in an ecological way. “We sought alternatives to mitigate the impact of livestock raising in the Sierra region”, explains Eddy Peralta, Executive Director of Plan Sierra, “And we succeeded in setting up sylvopastoral systems in which there is a harmonious combination of trees, pastures and dairy farming”.
Economic and social renewal in the Sierra region
Fifteen years on, it can be said that the results speak for themselves: production has risen from 700 liters of milk a day to over 20,000 liters. The sustainable intensification via sylvopastoral systems is driven by strong demand and is a major success. The Sierra region now has the most modern tree nursery in the country. To date, Plan Sierra has allowed the reforestation of over 7,400 hectares. 89 sylvopastoral systems have been set up, with a total surface area of 329 hectares. After experiencing a strong rural exodus, particularly with emigration to the USA, the region is undergoing a real economic and social renewal. 591 families have benefited from the creation of supply systems with technical assistance from Plan Sierra. 3,780 participants have attended 183 awareness-raising activities (workshops, conferences and lessons) conducted by Plan Sierra.
Holistic approach to environmental conservation
Plan Sierra is not, however, a program just about improving agricultural practices. Sanitation, waste management, access to rural credit and even tourism… everything is integrated. “Right from the start, the idea was to manage both the ecosystem and the socio-system”, points out Grégory Villeneuve, AFD’s Director in the Dominican Republic. “All the strengths and originality of Plan Sierra lie in the fact that it is a truly holistic plan to preserve a rural territory. In order to give communities the guarantee that they can permanently stay in the region, the challenge involved creating wealth-generating mechanisms that take environmental conservation into account”.
Access to good quality water for residents
Finally, water supply is a major aspect of the project. In the Sierra region, many families used to live 2 to 3 km away from water points… In addition, both the availability and quality of this essential resource were adversely affected by ancient farming practices. In the context of the plan, supply and irrigation systems were developed via local management organizations. The aim was not only to ensure that a pipe was connected to each household, but also to ensure that good quality water came out of it.
Taking things further…
“A number of successes can be put down to Plan Sierra”, adds Inmaculada Adames, President of Plan Sierra. “They need to be built upon… With AFD, we are drawing up the guidelines for a possible Plan Sierra III, which could involve local authorities more. We are also holding discussions with the Dominican Government to see how we can extend and improve this experience, not only in the Yaque watershed, but also with the other seven major watersheds which make up the Dominican territory.”
Sustainable fishing and aquaculture: the major international donors are scaling up their mobilization
Growth in demand for animal proteins puts strong pressure on fisheries resources and aquaculture development. Climate change has far-reaching consequences on fish stocks due to rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification. Europe and European donors, the World Bank, FAO and AFD are renewing their commitment to improving governance in the sector.
Regulation of sustainable fishing and aquaculture now essential
At the same time as the pressure on resources and environmental disruption, fishing communities are also highly exposed to the rapid changes in coastlines (disappearance of the usual landing areas or increasing distance of fishing areas due to sedimentation). Furthermore, aquaculture allows a number of family farms to diversify their diets and incomes.
Development institutions are renewing their commitment to regulate fisheries depending on stocks and their support for sustainable aquaculture methods.
It is for this reason that Europe and bilateral European donors, the World Bank, FAO and AFD are renewing their commitment to improve governance in the sector. On 6 and 7 June, AFD received at its headquarters the European Fisheries Development Advisers Network, which was set up six years ago at the initiative of the EU and GIZ. Experts attended from the EU (DG DEVCO and DG MARE), World Bank (GP Natural Resources), FAO, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden.
France presented its expertise (CIRAD, IRD, APDRAF) and commitment (AFD: EUR 450m of projects ongoing or under appraisal), particularly in terms of fisheries monitoring (Southeast Asia, Indonesia, for example) or aquaculture (West Africa, Guinea, for example).
The concept of EcoPorts was also discussed. It involves a project for the eco-certification of pilot fishing ports in Indonesia based on ISO 14 001 standards. Ports would be granted a label allocated to European ports which voluntarily adhere to good practices for sustainable development.
In addition, on 8 June, a meeting was held of the Steering Committee of the Trust Fund PROFISH, which is administered by the World Bank. AFD has been a member since 2010. This fund contributes to renewing donor commitments to the governance of fisheries in Sub-Saharan Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Madagascar).
For both Europe (DEVCO) and the World Bank, these 3-day discussions confirmed the interest in partnerships with AFD.
Securing land rights for farmers is essential in promoting agricultural investments and will be facilitated by the program to support land reform and tenure security, which has officially been launched today by the Prime Minister.
2 regions, 75 municipalities and 25,000 farmers concerned
Securing land rights for farmers is essential and provides a response to three issues: encourage agricultural investments, promote decentralization and facilitate local dispute resolution.
Consequently, the program to support land reform and tenure security, cofinanced with the European Union, will contribute to providing 75 municipalities in the regions of Analamanga and Itasy (on the outskirts of Antananarivo) with land rights and property taxation. It will give 25,000 farmers access to land with conditions that will allow them to invest and scale up their production.
Project duration: 4 years. Amount: EUR 4m.