- The Union of the Comoros is a small island developing State and is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. For the Indian Ocean basin, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) points to an increase in the average annual temperature of 0.9 °C since 1960 and an increase ranging between +1.4 °C and +3.7 °C by 2100 for the Comoros area.
- All sectors of activity are affected by the impacts of climate change: increasing frequency of natural disasters, strong coastal erosion, loss of biodiversity, ocean acidification, decline in agricultural production, food insecurity, emergence of new vector-borne diseases, etc. The archipelago is also experiencing increasingly frequent extreme climate events.
- AFD is currently working on updating existing studies and assessing the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Five adaptation project sheets on the most sensitive sectors will be created based on this data. Adapt’Action will then be able to go into action.
- The aim of the Comoros set out in its NDC is to be a carbon sink and thereby contribute to the overall effort to decarbonize the planet. The country wishes to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 84% by 2030. In terms of mitigation, the Comoros is focusing on a mixed approach based on agriculture and forest protection, reforestation, afforestation and reducing the collection of firewood. The Government of the Comoros is also committed to green and low-carbon growth, while reducing poverty.
With an objective of EUR 30m over a 4-year period, Adapt’Action will support 15 countries with a priority focus on Africa, the least developed countries (LDCs), and small island developing States (SIDS), which are among the most vulnerable countries to climate change.
Making the Paris Agreement operational
The challenge now lies in the implementation of the Paris Agreement and the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted by 163 countries, following COP21. These NDCs refer to the concrete commitments made by the countries concerned in their fight against climate change.
The Adapt’Action program aims to bring about climate projects that can be financed by AFD and international climate finance. Priority is given to adaptation to the impacts of climate change, a field for which the most vulnerable countries have expressed a specific need for assistance.
Operating at several levels
Adapt’Action is based on three areas of operation:
- Support for “climate” capacity building and governance for the consolidation, implementation and supervision of the NDCs;
- Support for a better integration of the commitments made in the NDCs into sectoral public policies, particularly in the field of adaptation to climate change;
- Support for the preparation of structural programs in the field of adaptation to climate change.
In November 2017, six identification missions were conducted to determine the first beneficiary countries of Adapt’Action: the Comoros, Niger, the Dominican Republic, Tunisia, Madagascar and Mauritius. These missions analyzed the specific vulnerabilities to climate change of each of these six countries, identified the priority sectors, and prepared potential areas for action with them.
Furthermore, projects that are eligible to be submitted to the Green Climate Fund are already being appraised in the Comoros, Mauritius, Tunisia and Madagascar. Nine additional countries are being considered for 2018, while continuing the ongoing work with our first six partners, the details of which are given below.
UNION OF THE COMOROS
- In Mauritius, a temperature increase of 1 to 2 °C is expected by 2060, with a reduction in rainfall of approximately 8% (compared to the 1950s) and a quantity of usable water which will fall by 13% by 2050. Conversely, rainfall is expected to become heavier during the hurricane season (May to October) between 2051 and 2070. The accelerated sea level rise is expected to reach a meter by 2100. The beaches, pillars of the tourism industry, will gradually disappear, taking over USD 50m with them by 2050.
- According to the 2016 World Risk Report, Mauritius is the 7th most vulnerable country to extreme climate events. Over the past 15 years, the average number of tropical cyclones has not increased, but they have become more intense.
- The NDC of Mauritius contains climate change mitigation and adaptation components. The component concerning mitigation aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2030. In terms of adaptation to climate change, Mauritius wants to take action on all fronts: infrastructure, mitigation of risks of climate-related disasters, preservation of water resources, management of coastal areas, agriculture and food security, fishing, biodiversity and, finally, health.
- Cyclones, droughts, floods, the rising sea level and increase in temperatures: Madagascar is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. The country is fragile because of its high exposure to hazards – there are many in the South West Indian Ocean basin –, its island status, and its low adaptive capacity.
- In terms of mitigation, Madagascar aims to drastically reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Industrialization, which is not very developed, is seen as an engine for its future development, alongside ecologically viable and economically acceptable development. Madagascar aims to increase its greenhouse gas absorption capacity by 32%, again by 2030.
- In terms of adaptation – a crucial aspect for Madagascar – the planned actions target sectors considered as being the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The priority focus is cyclones and floods, drought and the rising sea level, whose intensities are exacerbated by the temperature increase.
- Niger is one of the least developed countries (LDCs) and is highly vulnerable to climate disruptions. With 75% of its surface area located in the desert, the country is subject to the vagaries of the climate, with highly variable spatial and temporal rainfall.
- Niger is affected by a number of vulnerabilities. They include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate risks (droughts, floods, sand storms…), rising temperatures, the silting of rivers, and economic losses caused by floods and droughts.
- Niger only accounts for 0.07% of global CO2 emissions and has no quantified obligation in terms of mitigation. However, the country wants to contribute to reducing the global impacts of climate change by limiting its emissions, despite its significant needs to develop its economy and combat poverty.
- Niger’s NDC focuses on adaptation options with strong benefits in terms of mitigation, by applying good adaptation practices and techniques which allow carbon sequestration and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. These adaptation options are already well defined by existing strategic frameworks and policy papers. The national priorities focus on improving resilience in the sectors of agriculture, livestock raising, forestry and sustainable land management.
- The Dominican Republic is recognized as a small island developing State (SIDS) and is located in an area of intense cyclonic activity. It is regularly threatened by extreme climate events (tropical hurricanes, floods, drought, etc.), with major impacts on the economic and social development of the island and the ecosystems of the territory.
- Past extreme climate events have caused major losses, particularly in the sectors of agriculture, energy, industry, sanitation and health, and have prompted the Government to review its priorities.
- Indeed, the structure of the Dominican economy and its development are very much based on sectors that are vulnerable to climate change with a low adaptive capacity (agriculture and tourism in particular).
- Adaptation to climate change has consequently become one of the Government’s priorities and is reflected in its NDC with a focus on agriculture, water, tourism, sanitation, energy and infrastructure, risk management and early warning systems.
- Tunisia is one of the Mediterranean countries considered as being the most exposed to climate change. The main risks it faces are the increase in temperature, the decline in rainfall, the rising sea level and the increase in extreme climate events (floods and droughts). These risks lead to a high environmental and socioeconomic vulnerability.
- In terms of adaptation, Tunisia remains highly vulnerable to the global warming expected in the region and its implications in terms of the decline in rainfall and the rise in the sea level. The socioeconomic and environmental impacts will particularly affect water resources, agriculture, natural and artificial ecosystems, the coastline, health and tourism.
- Tunis aims to reduce the country’s greenhouse gas emissions in all sectors, in order to lower its carbon intensity by 41% by 2030 compared to 2010. The mitigation effort will mainly come from the energy sector, with 75% of emission reductions. Tunisia has also committed, with its own resources, to lower its carbon intensity by 13% compared to 2010, i.e. approximately a third of the commitment set out in its NDC.
AFD allocates different types of loans. Their terms are determined by the nature of the project and its environment (political, economic, social, environmental impact and context) and the quality of the borrower (sector of activity, rating, guarantees).
AFD uses grants to finance actions in the social sector (health, education), rural and urban development initiatives, and infrastructure projects.
The Debt Reduction-Development Contract (C2D) is a tool to restructure the debt of certain countries. In practical terms, once a Heavily Indebted Poor Country has signed a C2D with AFD, the country continues to service its debt until repayment. At each payment on the due date, AFD transfers the equivalent amount to the country in the form of a grant. This amount is used to finance poverty reduction programs.
The direct financial cooperation between AFD and CSOs today covers a wide range of instruments tailored to the specific characteristics of CSOs and their added value: support for innovation (Sectoral Innovation Facility for NGOs, financing from the French Facility for Global Environment, FFEM), financing for operations in fragile, crisis and post-crisis contexts (APCC), and support for their initiatives, via the CSO Initiatives mechanism.
FEXTE meets the development needs of middle-income countries, feeds into dialogue on public policies, and promotes French expertise.
The guarantees allocated by AFD facilitate financing for small businesses and microfinance institutions in developing countries. They also help French SMEs set up abroad. This means that they are an effective tool for promoting investment and job creation.