Minka: Peace and Resilience Fund

Preventing and mitigating crises and their impacts
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femme, rive, Mali
The Minka fund is AFD’s new instrument to tackle crisis situations. Minka is financed by the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT) and symbolizes our reinforced commitment in the most difficult contexts to support peace and resilience. Minka is a fund with EUR 100m a year earmarked to finance operations in the Sahel region, Middle East, Central African Republic and countries around Lake Chad.

Political, social, economic and ecological crises are increasingly linked. They are seldom confined to a country, affect entire regions (Sahel, Lake Chad, Middle East…) and threaten the often fragile development gains. AFD’s response has been to renew its approach in these fragile territories, with the aim of taking long-term action at the hotbed of a crisis and considering all the dimensions of reconstruction and development.

In November 2016, the Interministerial Committee for International Cooperation and Development (CICID) approved the creation of a facility to mitigate vulnerabilities and provide a response to crises: the Minka Fund, implemented by AFD. It was launched in March 2017 and includes four regional initiatives:

  • Tiwara for Sahelian countries plunged into protracted crises and degraded security contexts: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.
  • Sawa in the Middle East for countries affected by the Syrian and Iraqi crises: Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Syria and Iraq.
  • Ga Songo for the recovery of the Central African Republic. 
  • Kouri for countries affected by the crisis caused by Boko Haram: Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.

To take more effective action to address these crises, the amount allocated to the fund has been doubled and will reach EUR 200m a year by 2019

    Minka overview

    Four eligibility criteria
    • The region’s level of exposure to a major shock (endogenous or exogenous);
    • The capacity of the country or society to address it;
    • The potential level of the tensions or shock spreading at regional or international level;
    • The comparative advantage of France and AFD in the response to this shock.
    • Through grants or to support loans;
    • For national and local institutions, NGOs, private actors...;
    • Allocated directly or via multi-donor funds.
    Actions designed


    • At the hotbed of vulnerabilities or crises (multi-country);
    • For the long term (multi-year financial commitments);
    • In partnership with local and international actors;
    • To provide responses tailored to each context and create leverage effects.
    The philosophy
    • The Fund invests in addressing upstream the vulnerabilities which fuel crises and in building the resilience capacities of societies and institutions, while supporting the recovery from the crisis;
    • Minka’s strategy is still primarily to mobilize other French and international funds via a common programmatic approach and based on joint diagnostics. This is crucial for its objective of having an impact on the determinants of crises.

    Tiwara Initiative

    Providing more effective assistance to Sahel populations 

    For several years, the Sahel region, a strategic priority for development actors, has been experiencing a series of simultaneous crises of various origins whose impacts are felt beyond its borders. Local, regional and national crises fueled by banditry and trafficking come on top of the emergence of Islamist terrorism and the increase in insecurity. Yet the Sahel region has a number of advantages and a real capacity for resilience. AFD helps its partners strengthen the development tools at local level, improve governance and give back opportunities to youth. 

    The Tiwara Initiative will mobilize some additional EUR 200m for the period 2017-2021, for five countries: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger. 

    In 2017, the projects financed with EUR 39m will cover the areas the most affected by the activities of illegal groups. Five projects are under appraisal, in addition to the more structural actions already undertaken by AFD in the region:

    • Improving access to basic social services for populations in the north and center of Mali,
    • Ensuring food security in the east of Burkina Faso,
    • Strengthening public services and supporting the demographic transition in Niger. 

    These projects will include components with rapid impacts and enhanced monitoring-evaluation mechanisms. They will be followed by dozens of other projects, which will all tackle the roots of the crisis. 

    Sawa Initiative

    Addressing the Syrian and Iraqi crises together

    Since 2014, AFD has been helping the countries neighboring Syria and Iraq address the repercussions of the wars and the arrival of refugee populations. In 2017, the Sawa (“Together” in Arabic) Initiative mobilized EUR 86m of grants.

    Syria and Iraq are the scene of a protracted crisis which has forced several million people to flee their homes. In neighboring countries, the settlement of refugees (3.6 million in Turkey, 1 million in Lebanon, 0.7 million in Jordan) puts essential public services under substantial pressure, which undermines social cohesion between local populations and refugees. 

    In the context of the commitments of the London and Brussels conferences, the Sawa Initiative for the Middle East supports refugee populations from Syria and Iraq, but also the most vulnerable women and men in the host countries in Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. It supports national and local institutions, which are the first concerned by the management of the crisis.

    Thanks to the Minka Fund and funds delegated by the European Commission (Madad Fund, a facility for refugees in Turkey), the Sawa Initiative makes it possible to operate through grants in middle-income countries, which are traditionally beneficiaries of loans. 


    Ga Songo Initiative

    Working for the recovery of the Central African Republic 

    2013 marked the onset of the most serious crisis in the history of CAR, with the power takeover by a coalition of armed factions mainly from the North-East (Séléka). During an intense war where the religious factor was instrumentalized, the mobilization/reactivation of Anti-Balaka self-defense groups simply heightened the violence. In December 2013, France and the African Union deployed the Sangaris and MISCA missions, which were replaced by MINUSCA in April 2014. In 2014, a reconciliation process was initiated, followed two years later by the election of the new President, Faustin-Archange Touadéra. In late 2016, the new Central African authorities declared their sustainable commitment to the path for peace and development, as well as to addressing the causes of the crisis. However, intercommunity tensions and clashes between armed groups have been continuing since early 2017. The Central State now only controls a small part of the territory. 

    The Ga Songo Initiative aims to get the country out of the circle of structural weaknesses (social and geographical inequalities, corruption, diversion of natural resources, endemic insecurity), which have eroded social cohesion. AFD has decided to take action on three areas which can consolidate the exit from the crisis: 

    • Developing rural areas in the South-West and North-East, by providing basic services, supporting the reconstruction and rehabilitation of road infrastructure, etc.
    • Strengthening central and local institutions, in order to assist them in their mission to provide services to populations.
    • The socioeconomic integration of youth, in order to offer better opportunities for the future, and social and vocational integration to young women and men.

    The Ga Songo Initiative will mobilize EUR 40m from the Minka Fund for the period 2017-2021.

    Kouri Initiative

    The Kouri Initiative for countries affected by the crisis caused by Boko Haram: Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria and Chad

    The Lake Chad crisis is the result of a diversity of factors, including the rainfall deficit which has increased pressure on water resources for agriculture and herds, but also the spread of the terrorist threat of Boko Haram, a multifaceted group which is seeking to expand its control over the four riparian countries of the lake (Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon). Kouri is our response to the causes of this crisis.

    It targets three priorities:

    • Contribute to local territorial development: Kouri aims to reduce territorial and social inequalities in regions affected by Boko Haram, particularly needs for public services in remote rural areas and poor neighborhoods in urban areas. 
    • Strengthen food security and natural resources management. Around Lake Chad, populations are exposed to food insecurity and conflicts over the use of land or water. AFD is supporting the distribution and conservation of resources by providing targeted support to family farming, livestock raising and fishing, and by promoting a rational management of natural resources.
    • Support the socioeconomic integration of youth. AFD’s action aims to offer better opportunities for the future to youth, by developing their professional skills through training actions focusing on high-potential productive sectors, supporting entrepreneurship, counselling services and intermediation between labor supply and demand.

    In 2018, the Kouri Initiative mobilized EUR 15m from the Minka Fund.

    Launch of the Minka Fund
    EUR 200m
    a year by 2020
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