Indonesia has benefited from its integration into globalization with a significant increase in the value of the human development index (HDI) and a significant decrease in the number of people living below the poverty line. However, its economic growth has not been inclusive, as evidenced by the rapid increase in wealth inequality in the country. With a Gini coefficient of 0.38 in 2019, Indonesia has higher levels of inequality than other Southeast Asian countries in the same income group.
As an archipelagic country, Indonesia depends heavily on the fisheries sector and on the quality of its marine ecosystem. However, the latter is seriously threatened by climate change, which is causing the deterioration of the country's coastal ecology, of the livelihoods and of food security for a part of the Indonesian population. Indeed, changing weather patterns and warming oceans are expected to lead to a 20% decrease in Indonesia's marine fisheries production by 2055, with major socio-economic consequences for a large proportion of the population. Beyond climate change, other factors also threaten marine ecosystems and resource exploitation: overfishing, marine pollution, habitat destruction, etc.
To address this issue, Indonesia has introduced a plan to develop marine protected areas (MPAs) with the aim of promoting the conservation of marine ecosystems by restricting all human activities in designated areas. This plan, established for the period 2020-2024, is part of the country's 6th Development Programme and presents benefits for both environmental sustainability and reducing inequalities.