The world has seen a significant reduction in the extreme poverty levels in the past decades, led by strong economic growth from emerging economies. Despite the economic growth, the incomes of the poorest people all over the world are not keeping up. Eight out of ten people in developing countries live in nations where the income of the bottom 40% has grown slower than the rest of the economy (Hoy & Samman, 2015) and 7 out of 10 people live in a country where inequality has risen in the last 30 years.
Regarding Latin American and the Caribbean, although the region achieved considerable success in reducing extreme poverty over the last decade, its still-high levels of income and wealth inequality have damaged sustainable growth and social inclusion.
In West Africa, the sub-region had the largest average economic growth at 6.2 percent between 2010 and 2014 among Africa's regions, and compared with 4.4 percent for Africa during the period. However, there is growing concern that the benefits of this impressive growth have not been inclusive and equitably shared. The combination of high economic growth and stubbornly high income inequality rates remains a puzzle.
This project is part of a European facility for a research program on inequalities in developing and emerging countries which is coordinated by the AFD. Financed by the Development Cooperation Instrument of the European Union, this facility enables to implement 20 research projects over the period 2017-2020, in partnership with donors and research centers from the South to the North.
This project is part of the European Facility for a research program on Inequalities in Developing and Emerging Countries, which is coordinated by the AFD. Financed by the Development Cooperation Instrument of the European Union, this facility enables to implement 20 research projects over the 2017-2020 period, in partnership with donors and research centers from the South to the North.
Even if we know less unequal societies are desirable given their beneficial economic, social and political outcomes, there is still uncertainty on which are the best routes to understand and tackle inequalities through a multidimensional perspective. To contribute to this global conversation on inequalities, Oxfam, the International Inequalities Institute at the London School of Economics and the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London, are joining efforts to develop a conceptual and measurement framework on inequalities. The purpose of the framework is to provide analysts and practitioners with a theoretically-grounded means by which to gain a clear understanding of the nature of inequality and to use this information to develop and devise effective policy responses with the long-term goal of reducing inequalities, tackling deprivation and improving well-being.
The framework is designed to capture the multidimensional nature of inequality, which is experienced across a number of 7 life domains, and given that there are many different forms of inequality (such as concentrations of wealth, pay gaps, dispersion of income, social gradients in mortality, and greater social isolation experienced by the elderly). The framework is based on Amartya Sen's capability approach. The focus of this approach is an assessment on what life we lead and what we can or cannot do, and can or cannot be; the quality of life that individuals are able to achieve. Equally important, this framework should enlighten the discussion on inequalities in a way that allows for context-specific diagnosis and policy recommendations, so that it can support the strategic work of practitioners and key stakeholders of the development arena.
See this project's 2 minutes pitch from Ana Claver, Project Manager on Inequalities at Oxfam Intermón:
Evidence from more than 150 countries, rich and poor alike, spanning more than 30 years, shows that overall, investment in health, education and social protection reduces inequality. Nevertheless, we still need to know more about what are the concrete mechanisms that make these inequality reductions happen, and how certain policies should be designed so that they tackle spatial, gender and ethnic inequalities in an effective manner. We expect to draw lessons from those different scenarios by this comparative research.
The researchers involved in this project anticipate that active citizenship is a means to achieve development, because it enables women and men living in poverty to raise their voice in defence of their rights (health, education, jobs, dignity). Moreover, they presuppose that public policies amplify their effectiveness when citizens are involved in their cycle. They also presume that women and girls plus youth are the groups especially impacted by multidimensional inequality and thus, they should be carefully considered in the research.
This project is carried out with the support of the European Union
The content of this project information sheet falls under the sole responsibility of the AFD and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of the European Union.