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Since 2008, the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have been affected by different kinds of shocks. The international financial crisis and then the euro-zone sovereign debt crisis have brought on a sharp slowdown in the growth of goods and services exports from the MENA countries. These macroeconomic shocks were compounded by a political shock wave that impacted several of the region’s countries in the wake of the popular uprising in Tunisia in early 2011. These different crises have penalised their pace of growth, particularly those countries that depend most on international business, such as Jordan.

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