We investigate the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in four non-oil-exporting MENA countries (Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt). Using data from a recent enterprise survey, we highlight several new findings. MENA SMEs resorted to wage and work hours reductions more readily than layoffs in the wake of the pandemic. Within SMEs, larger firms are more resilient, recover faster, and adapt more often. On the sector level, the accommodation and food services sector is the worst affected in most outcomes. There is, however, clear recovery in Q2 (versus Q1) 2021 across sectors and countries. Furthermore, SMEs that switch to remote work are less likely to face closures, recover faster, and adapt more frequently, signaling higher resilience and adaptability. On the other hand, participation in government assistance programs does not improve firm outcomes, whereas firms that participate in international trade are more resilient and adaptable in the face of the shock. The results of the study carry very important policy implications to support SMEs in developing countries in time of extreme exogenous shocks.
on the same regionResearch documentpublished in November 2023Research documentpublished in November 2023Infographicspublished in November 2023Vidéopublished in October 2023Vidéopublished in September 2023Vidéopublished in September 2023
on the same topicResearch documentpublished in September 2023Research documentpublished in August 2023Podcastspublished in August 2023Institutional documentReviews and Activity ReportsInfographicspublished in May 2023Institutional documentReviews and Activity Reportspublished in May 2023Research documentpublished in March 2023
from the same collectionResearch documentWorldwide effects of climate change education on the cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors of schoolchildren and their entourage. A systematic reviewpublished in November 2023Research documentpublished in November 2023Research documentpublished in September 2023Research documentLow-carbon Transition and Macroeconomic Vulnerabilities: A Multidimensional Approach in Tracing Vulnerabilities and its Application in the Case of Colombiapublished in July 2023Research documentGetting from Good Intentions to Effective Action: A Proposal for a Just Transition Partnering Implementation Model in South Africapublished in July 2023Research documentCounter-cyclical Responses: How Development Banks helped the Covid-19 Recovery, and Lessons for the Futurepublished in July 2023