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Developing inequality diagnostic tools - Visuel -
This project seeks to contribute to the goals of the research facility on inequalities through the analysis of multidimensional inequalities in Vietnam. The project will address the following key questions: What are the most relevant inequalities in Vietnam? What are the most critical inequality drivers ? What policies should national government prioritize to foster inequality reduction?

This project also originally focused on the analysis of inequalities in Burkina Faso. However, this project has been suspended.

Despite a significant progress in Vietnam in terms of growth, poverty reduction and even inequality reduction, efforts on inequality and human development issues still need to be done.

In Vietnam, nearly 30 million people have been lifted above the official poverty line over the last three decades, and the country's human development index (HDI) has risen significantly. However, data shows that income inequality in Vietnam has increased over the last two decades. According to the World Bank, the Gini index rose from 35.7 to 38.7 from 1992 to 2012. Besides, in 2014, there were 210 super-rich individuals in the country whose combined wealth stood around $20bn, which is equivalent to 12% of the country's GDP. In fact, according to Oxfam-Vietnam calculations, the richest man in Vietnam earns more in a day than the poorest Vietnamese earns in 10 years.


This project is part of the European Facility for a research program on Inequalities in Developing and Emerging Countries, which is coordinated by the AFD. Financed by the Development Cooperation Instrument of the European Union, this facility enables to implement 20 research projects over the 2017-2020 period, in partnership with donors and research centers from the South to the North. 



The goal is to adopt a multidimensional approach to provide convincing analysis on inequality. This will focus especially on inequality of opportunities and voice in order to use this as a process to engage with relevant stakeholders, especially in the debates on policy options to tackle inequality, and in mid-term to use the MIF as a way to influence monitoring of SDG 10 in the country.

The specific goals are as follows:

  • The "Oxfam Vietnam Inequality Framework" is developed, piloted and adopted to the Vietnamese context;
  • The OVIF is used as a tool to enhance in-depth understanding on multiple dimensions of inequality (paying special attention to inequality in voices and opportunity) and identify concrete policy gaps to tackle inequality in Vietnam;

The OVIF research findings and methodology are shared with policy makers, research institutes, and other development institutions.


The Multidimensional Inequality Framework is designed to capture the multidimensional nature of inequality, which is experienced across a number of 7 life domains, and that there are many different forms of inequality (such as concentrations of wealth, pay gaps, dispersion of income, social gradients in mortality, and greater social isolation experienced by the elderly). Within each of the 7 life domains, the framework offers a series of sub-domains and a number of indicators and measures which can be used to measure and monitor multidimensional inequality in a given context. Many of the indicators and measures suggested under each subdomain are related to the SDGs framework, which governments are already committed to monitor. This can be a useful element to guarantee at least a minimum level of data availability in all countries. Besides, the Oxfam Inequality Toolkit, which is a key companion for the practical implementation of the MIF in a given context, suggests several global databases, aside from national household surveys, to be used by teams willing to implement the framework.


The implementation process of the MIF tool is expected to:

  • Improve points and lessons learned on the MIF implementation process and share it within the Oxfam Learning Community, and within the MIF website for the wider development community;
  • Generate policy gaps and recommendations on multiple dimensions of inequality, therefore contributing to the inequality debate in the country;
  • Research findings are shared with the relevant stakeholders, including policy makers, research institutions, development institutions, the media and potential donors.



See this project's 2 minutes pitch from Cristina Rovira, researcher at Oxfam Intermon:


You may find the research paper here:
- Multidimensional inequality in Vietnam

Project start date
Project end date
1 year and 5 months
Duration of the program
100 000
Financing amount


Anda David, Research Officer, AFD. 

Felipe Korreales, Research Officer, AFD.

The content of this project information sheet falls under the sole responsibility of the AFD and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of the European Union.